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iox - pv loops
iox - pv loops
iox - PV Loops
iox - pv loops
pressure-volume (pv) systems

hardware and software solutions for pressure-volume loop studies in small rodents to large animals

emka TECHNOLOGIES provides complete hardware and software solutions for pressure-volume (pv) loop studies in a wide range of species, from small rodents to large animals.

Cardiovascular pressure and volume signals can be plotted against each other in real time, generating the characteristic pressure-volume (P-V) loops that are an excellent illustration of the cardiac cycle in normal or diseased conditions of the living heart.

PV loops may be captured during pharmacological, therapeutic, and hemodynamic interventions, allowing comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental mechanical properties of the heart. 


how does it work?

The systems use the conductance catheter technique for the volume signal. The catheter has several ring electrodes along its length and is positioned in the left ventricle. Conductance between pairs of electrodes is measured. iox2 software uses these measurements to calculate up to 5 segmental volumes, and in turn total left ventricular volume.

Pressure changes within the left ventricle are measured and combined with the volume data in real time to create PV loops.

Several models of catheters are made by Millar Inc, including the Ultra-Miniature Pressure-Volume Catheters for rodents.

The pressure and volume signals travel from the catheter, to the signal conditioning unit (model MPVS Ultra) then to an usbACQ acquisition device, connected to the PC via usb (for small animals), or an interface box (for large animals).  

Millar Pressure-Volume Systems (MPVS Ultra) simultaneously and continuously measure high-fidelity left ventricular pressure and relative volume from the intact beating hearts of small and large animals.

The PC must be running iox2 for the acquisition. The dedicated PV loops analyzer is an add-on module specifically designed to perform complete analysis on loops during steady-state and changing conditions (e.g. vena cava occlusion or saline bolus injection for calculating parallel conductance correction factor).


The practical and powerful software allows you to:

 generate, enter or re-use existing parallel conductance correction
 generate or enter alpha correction factor
 select pv loops for analysis
 fit curves using linear or nonlinear regression
 invalidate specific beats in a series (to increase the accuracy of the regression)
 display several series on the same graph (to compare different occlusions)
 display loops from single or multiple subjects simultaneously
 review and export results to Excel
 do all this in full compliance with 21 cfr part 11 & GLP requirements


The PV loops analyzer generates several parameters including:

 End-Systolic Pressure-Volume Relationship (ESPVR)
 End-Diastolic Pressure-Volume Relationship (EDPVR)
 preload recruitable stroke work relationship (PRSW)
 arterial elastance (Ea)
 stroke work

Real-time volume signals may also be obtained using sonomicrometry.

Another way of assessing cardiac contractility is to analyze pressure-distance loops, in which the distance is typically myocardial segment length or wall thickness measured by sonomicrometry transducers. A dedicated iox analyzer is available for this purpose.


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