Techniques & Measurements

This page lists techniques and measurements employed by
the emkaPACK5 system for large animals, and used in the area
of measuring cardiovascular and respiratory

Wireless non-invasive telemetry

Physiological measurements are captured non-invasively by the transmitter housed in a jacket. They are amplified, digitized and wirelessly transmitted by Bluetooth to a receiver within 10 meters distance.

Then, when received by the telemetry receiver, physiological signals can directly be sent to the acquisition computer, via Ethernet.

Wireless technology is ideal to reliably transfer high volumes of data from a freely moving animal. Advantages associated with this technique are well known: Longer and better-quality data obtained from less stressed subjects, allowing compliance with 3Rs principles.

Did you know?

emkaPACK has been used to record ECG, respiration and temperature from Siberian huskies running up to 15 km/h!

In vivo studies from conscious, unanesthetized instrumented animals are recommended by the FDA for ICH S7A studies.



emkaPACK5 enables acquisition of up to 9-lead ECG with external adhesive electrodes.

Having several ECG leads allow to display electrical activity from different axes. Some ECG waves (P, Q, R, S, T) can be visible on one lead and missing on another lead. Therefore, it is highly interesting to continuously display several leads and get a complete overview of heart electrical activity.

  • PR, QRS, QT, JT, ST, RR intervals
  • P, T wave durations
  • QTc, JTc corrected values (available with a choice of 6 calculation modes)
  • ST-segment elevation
  • P, Q, R, S, Tneg. & Tpos. amplitudes
  • P, QRS, T wave areas
  • QT in user-adjustable HR ranges
  • Isolated P waves detection
  • Arrhythmia detection
  • Heart Rate Variability
Did you know?

ecgAUTO analyzes ECG data using shape recognition techniques.


Olgotrelvir, a dual inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and cathepsin L, as a standalone antiviral oral intervention candidate for COVID-19. Long Mao et al. Med, 2024.

Barthélémy, I., Su, J.B., Cauchois, X. et al. Ambulatory electrocardiographic longitudinal monitoring in a canine model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy identifies decreased very low frequency power as a hallmark of impaired heart rate variability. Sci Rep  b(2024).

Preclinical Toxicity and Immunogenicity of a COVID-19 Vaccine (ZF2001) in Cynomolgus Monkeys. Hongzhong Yang et al. Vaccines 2022

Comprehensive arrhythmia analysis in telemetered non-human primates. Poster presented by Amgen at the Safety Pharmacology Society meeting, Boston, MA, September 2010

An improved method for ECG recording in conscious dogs and monkeys : pericardial lead placement. Poster presented by GlaxoSmithKline, UK, at the Society of Safety Pharmacology meeting, Madison, WI, USA, september 2008

Blood pressure

Blood pressure can be acquired through a non-invasive technique with an inflatable cuff that contains a pressure transducer, placed around the tail or the limb.

Blood pressure can also be obtained :

  • from a vascular access port (VAP) with an indwelling catheter using a minimally invasive procedure to position the catheter in an artery (carotid for instance),
  • from an easyTEL+ M2 implant (Implant and jacket telemetry can be used independently or simultaneously).

• Systolic
• Diastolic
• Heart Rate
• Mean pressure


Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography

emkaPACK5 enables the evaluation of multiple respiratory endpoints by Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography (RIP).

The RIP technique uses belt(s) placed around the subject’s thorax and/or abdomen. Each belt consists of a copper wire through which a current is passed. The wave shape of the wire enables stretching and contraction of the belt as the subject breathes. Changes in the cross-sectional area of the torso lead to changes in the belt’s inductance. The emkaPACK5 transmitter measures the inductance, then converts it into lung volume.

  • Duration of breath,
  • Duration of inspiration/expiration,
  • Breathing rate,
  • Inspired/expired volume,
  • Minute volume,
  • Max flow during inspiration/expiration,
  • Thorax-abdomen shift – time or angle (when 2 belts used)
Did you know?

RIP technique can be used on large animals such as horses.

For spirometry/breathing patterns, a simple pneumotachograph and/or RIP bands are needed. An oesophageal pressure sensor can be added to permit a more detailed measurement of resistance and compliance.



A 3-axis accelerometer inside the transmitter measures the acceleration in the x-, y- and z-axis.

Therefore, any movement of the subject head translates in variations in the x, y, z coordinates of acceleration.

Using the three individual axis signals, IOX2 acquisition software calculates a global acceleration, making it possible to derive information about the animal’s posture (standing on hind legs, on its side etc).

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